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Health effects of air pollution on humans

health effects of air pollution

World population emits huge amount of air pollutants every day, and this negatively affects our health. These emissions increase every year, threatening the planet and one of our most important sources of life, the air.

Air pollution consequences on the environment are well-known, and if you still want to know more about it check out or posts on this topic. However, it is little known that molecules that form air pollutants have serious impact on our well-being, as these affect several parts of our organisms.

It doesn’t matter how healthy you are when it comes to air pollution. However, sensitive groups such as children, elderly and people with respiratory or heart diseases may experience stronger symptoms and health effects.

Respiratory problems

Since our respiratory system is based in the interaction between our body and external air, it is obviously highly affected when it comes to breathing air pollution. Short-term exposure to air pollution may drive to the following symptoms:

  • Eye and nose irritation
  • Chest pain
  • Pneumonia
  • Bronchitis
  • Asthma
  • Emphysema
  • Worse respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis, asthma or emphysema.
  • Coughing or wheezing
  • Throat irritation
  • Nose bleeding
  • Dizziness
  • Weakness
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Airway inflammation
  • Reduce lung function
  • Harm lung tissue
  • Shortness of breath (dyspnea)
  • Decrease the capacity to perform exercise
  • Premature mortality due to cancer or respiratory disease
  • Kidney failure
  • Male reproductive problems
  • Depression
  • Diarrhea

Long-term exposure to air pollution can cause consequences of suffering the health issues mentioned above stronger, they can even become chronic illnesses. Apart from those, other health problems in cases of constant exposure to air pollution are memory loss, movement problems, cardiovascular and neurological issues or even dead.

Cardiovascular and heart problems

If the pollutants inhaled have the capability to penetrate deeply enough into the human body to reach the bloodstream, consequences may turn into a huge amount of health problems. Moreover, the person will experience fast and direct effects since it reduces the amount of oxygen arriving to organs, or in other words, worse quality and less blood production.

Mobility issues, muscular problems, high blood pressure or heart diseases can be diagnosticated in cases of lead or carbon monoxide poisoning. Other important pollutants directly related to the cardiovascular system are sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2).

Neurological and birth problems in kids and other issues in adults

As mentioned above, children are more vulnerable to air pollution effects, such as anemia or behavioral problems. Mothers breathing high concentrations of polluted air during the pregnancy reach the fetus and experience issues like low birth weight or premature birth. Moreover, it can carry future consequences, for example permanent neurological problems (like learning deficits and lowered IQ) or slow development of normal childhood behaviors (like the use of words and talking).

baby sleeping

Inhaling airborne particles also affects the neurological system of adults, for example increasing the risk of alzheimer and damaging or weakening the immune system. On the other hand, breathing volatile organic compounds (VOCs), is related to liver, kidney and central nervous system damages.

Skin issues

Air pollution can also damage your skin in several ways. However, its influence is not directly related since skin problems are given by the interaction between human-beings and environmental adverse conditions due to air pollution.

We may suffer skin cancer or premature aging skin because of ultraviolet sunlight rays high exposure, driven by the ozone layer depletion. Furthermore, skin irritation can be experienced when bathing in eutrophic water, if the water contains certain kinds of algaes. Both events result from air pollution emissions to the atmosphere and its posterior indirect effect on humans and the environment.

Sources of health effects of air pollution

Those evidence and effects in the human body can be given by adverse environmental conditions or either airborne pollutants:

  • Smog: Since its gases-particles composition makes it easy to penetrate deeply in the body.
  • Ozone layer depletion, global warming and climate change: Exposing ourselves to more ultraviolet sun rays that can directly damage our skin and worse the air we breathe, with wildfires smoke for example.
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen oxides (NOx): The main components of acid rain. They can also react in the atmosphere in order to become more harmful pollutants, in particular nitrogen dioxide (NO2).
  • Carbon monoxide (CO): As it reduces the amount of oxygen that can be transported in the bloodstream.
  • Lead (Pb): Once it is inhaled, it is placed on the bloodstream and the bones involving almost every organ and system in the human body.
  • Ozone (O3): This gas become so toxic at ground levels.
  • Particulate Matter (PM): The smallest the particle is, the deeper it may penetrate into our organism, even to the bloodstream.
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs): Especially highly concentrated indoors since its emissions can be produced by a big amount of daily use gadgets.
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